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Bibliography/Citations [PART I]


Introductions

  1. Fultz, N. E., Bonmassar, G., Setsompop, K., Stickgold, R. A., Rosen, B. R., Polimeni, J. R., & Lewis, L. D. (2019). Coupled electrophysiological, hemodynamic, and cerebrospinal fluid oscillations in human sleep. Science, 366(6465), 628–631. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aax5440. See Also: Wamsley, E. J. (2014). Dreaming and Offline Memory Consolidation. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 14(3), 433. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11910-013-0433-5

  2. Conselice, C. J., Wilkinson, A., Duncan, K., & Mortlock, A. (2016). The evolution of galaxy number density at z < 8 and its implications. The Astrophysical Journal, 830(2), 83. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/830/2/83

  3. Handwerk, B. (2021, February 2). An Evolutionary Timeline of Homo Sapiens. Smithsonian Magazine. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/essential-timeline-understanding-evolution-homo-sapiens-180976807/

  4. Baumgartner, R. J., Van Kranendonk, M. J., Wacey, D., Fiorentini, M. L., Saunders, M., Caruso, S., Pages, A., Homann, M., & Guagliardo, P. (2019). Nano−porous pyrite and organic matter in 3.5-billion-year-old stromatolites record primordial life. Geology, 47(11), 1039–1043. https://doi.org/10.1130/G46365.1

  5. Richard Dawkins versus Rowan Williams: Humanity’s ultimate origins. (2012, February 1). [Video File]. University of Oxford. https://youtu.be/zruhc7XqSxo (10 minutes into the video). The quote is also found elsewhere too, see Julian Huxley’s essay entitled “The New Divinity” in: Huxley, J. (1964). Essays of a Humanist (1st ed.). Harper & Row. Or, Huxley, J. (1968). Transhumanism. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 8(1), 73–76. https://doi.org/10.1177/002216786800800107

  6. National Nuclear Security Administration. (2018, October 17). Visible Light: Eye-opening research at NNSA [NNSA Official Website]. Web Articles. https://www.energy.gov/nnsa/articles/visible-light-eye-opening-research-nnsa

  7. David Eagleman. (2014, June 3). The Umwelt [Author’s Website]. David Eagleman. https://eagleman.com/latest/umwelt/


Chapter 1: Trapped

  1. Davies, N. (2015). Cuckoo: Cheating by nature. Bloomsbury. (p. 23)

  2. Memoirs of Professor Richard Dawkins. (2013, November 19). Richard Dawkins—Cuckoos and a History of Life [Lecture]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=USdjFRqVI7E (4:20 in).

  3. The majority of these facts concerning cuckoos were either derived from Nick Davies’ book Cuckoo: Cheating by nature (item 1), or from the lecture he gave at the Royal Society entitled: Davies, N. (2015, May 14). Cuckoos and their victims: An evolutionary arms race [Royal Society Lecture]. https://youtu.be/n0O6S4hDDfE

  4. Goslings will follow human beings they’ve imprinted on whether they were wearing striped boots, zigzag boots, or polka dot boots. Leslie Nielsen; National Geographic Society. (1975). Konrad Lorenz—Science of Animal Behavior (1975) [Documentary]. Jack Kaufman Pictures, Inc. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IysBMqaSAC8

  5. Lorenz also found that Goslings would imprint on a box when he placed it atop a model train. See: T.L. Brink. (2018). Psychology: A student friendly approach. San Bernadino Community College District. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335128923_Psychology_a_student_friendly_approach (p. 268).

  6. Lorenz, K. (1981). The foundations of ethology. Springer verlag. (p. 5).

  7. Lorenz, K. (1937). On the formation of the concept of instinct. Die Naturwissenschaften, 25(19), 289–300. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01492648

  8. Davies, N. (2015). Cuckoo: Cheating by nature. Bloomsbury. (p. 14).

  9. Most neuroscientists cite around 98 to 99% of our cognition being unconscious. George Lakoff, for example, cites 98% in his book, The Political Mind, but agrees that it is likely to be higher in his lectures. See: Lakoff, G. (2009). The political mind: A cognitive scientist’s guide to your brain and its politics; [with a new preface]. Penguin Books. (P. 9); and George Lakoff. (2015, March 14). George Lakoff: How Brains Think: The Embodiment Hypothesis [Keynote address]. International Convention of Psychological Science, Amsterdam. https://youtu.be/WuUnMCq-ARQ, respectively. Dr. Jordan Peterson has cited 99%, see: Sam Harris, Jordan Peterson & Douglas Murray in London—Part 4. (2018, July 16). Pangburn Philosophy. https://youtu.be/aALsFhZKg-Q (68:20 min. in).


Chapter 2: Source Code

  1. Specifically, Dr. Eagleman talks about how far we live in the past we live starting at about 14 min into the lecture. For vision, the flash-lag effect demonstrates that we live at least 80-100 ms in the past. But collectively, across all senses, he argues, that we live around a half second in the past. “It turns out in total…on average…we probably live something like a half a second in the past. That’s how long it takes for the brain to collect up all this information from our toes and everything else, and put this all together.” David Eagleman. (2016, October 4). The Brain and The Now—David Eagleman [Keynote address]. The Long Now Member Summit, San Francisco. https://youtu.be/vv_e99qbJ4U (14 min in.)

  2. Muckli, L., & Petro, L. S. (2013). Network interactions: Non-geniculate input to V1. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23(2), 195–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2013.01.020

  3. Lee, T. S. (2015). The Visual System’s Internal Model of the World. Proceedings of the IEEE, 103(8), 1359–1378. https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2015.2434601


Chapter 3: The Movie in Your Mind

  1. “Complementary information comes from a consideration of the amount of sensory information made available to the brain. For example, it may surprise some to learn that visual information is significantly compressed as it passes from the eye to the visual cortex.9 Thus, of the information available from the environment, only about 1010 bits/s (i.e., 10 billion bits/s) are deposited in the retina. Yet, only 104 bits/s (i.e., 0.001% of that which was deposited on the retina) make it to primary visual cortex. These data make it clear that visual cortex receives a very compressed representation of the world, a subject of more than passing interest to those seeking an understanding of visual information processing.” Raichle, M. E. (2019). Creativity and the Brain’s Default Mode Network. In M. E. Raichle, Secrets of Creativity (p. 107–123). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190462321.003.0006

  2. “Published in April 2016 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), the findings show how the drug decreases communication between the brain regions that make up the Default Mode Network (DMN), a collection of hub centres that work together to control and repress consciousness. Like the conductor in an orchestra, the DMN polices the amount of sensory information that enters our sphere of awareness, and has been described as the neural correlate of the ‘ego’.” From: Beckley Foundation. (2016, April 1). The World’s First Images of the Brain on LSD [Scientific Institution]. Beckley in the Press. https://www.beckleyfoundation.org/the-brain-on-lsd-revealed-first-scans-show-how-the-drug-affects-the-brain/

  3. Naomi Austin. (2010, October 18). Is Seeing Believing? (4 of 15) [Documentary]. In Horizon. BBC Two. https://youtu.be/2k8fHR9jKVM

  4. Tiippana, K. (2014). What is the McGurk effect? Frontiers in Psychology, 5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00725

  5. “Why do the sight and sound of a slamming car door suddenly appear unsynchronized if you view it from more than 30 meters away? This seems to occur because the system perceptually synchronizes signals that arrive less than 80 msec apart (past 30 meters, the difference between the speeds of light and sound exceed this window).” From: David Eagleman. (2013, February 12). Time and the Brain (or, What’s happening in the Eagleman Lab) [Author’s Website]. The Timing and Perception and the Timing of Neural Signals. https://eagleman.com/time-and-the-brain-or-what-s-happening-in-the-eagleman-lab/

  6. King, A. J. (2005). Multisensory Integration: Strategies for Synchronization. Current Biology, 15(9), R339–R341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2005.04.022

  7. Tully, K., Bolshakov, V.Y. (2010). Emotional enhancement of memory: how norepinephrine enables synaptic plasticity. Molecular Brain, 3(1),15. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-6606-3-15

  8. Tyng, C. M., Amin, H. U., Saad, M. N. M., & Malik, A. S. (2017). The Influences of Emotion on Learning and Memory. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1454. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01454

  9. Roediger, H. L., & Pyc, M. A. (2012). Inexpensive techniques to improve education: Applying cognitive psychology to enhance educational practice. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1(4), 242–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2012.09.002

  10. Taylor, K., & Rohrer, D. (2010). The effects of interleaved practice. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(6), 837–848. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1598. For a good summary of many studies concerning interleaved practice, see also: Steven C. Pan. (2015, August 4). The Interleaving Effect: Mixing It Up Boosts Learning. Scientific American.

  11. Landin, D. K., Hebert, E. P., & Fairweather, M. (1993). The Effects of Variable Practice on the Performance of a Basketball Skill. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64(2), 232–237. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1993.10608803


Chapter 4: Consciousness as Software

  1. Budson, A. E., & Solomon, P. R. (2011). Memory loss a practical guide for clinicians. Elsevier Saunders (p. 214-219).

  2. Cowan, N. (2010). The Magical Mystery Four: How Is Working Memory Capacity Limited, and Why? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(1), 51–57. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721409359277

  3. Alan Watts. (2019, December 19). 3.4.11 Transformation of Consciousness Part 3 [Lecture/transcript archive]. Alan Watts Organization. https://alanwatts.org/3-4-11-transformation-of-consciousness-part-3/

  4. After much deliberation, the topic of attention—as it relates to each hemisphere—was deemed too complex to include inside this narrative. However, for the serious student, I’d recommend picking up a copy of Dr. Iain McGilchrist’s book about the two hemispheres, because there, the topic is treated with a fine-tooth comb. Here, the topic is only teased. McGilchrist, I. (2019). The master and his emissary: The divided brain and the making of the Western world (New expanded edition). Yale University Press. (p. 28-31; 38-50).

  5. 1.1.8. - Myth of Myself—Pt. 2. (2019, April 16). Alan Watts Organization. https://alanwatts.org/1-1-8-myth-of-myself-pt-2/

  6. 86 Billion Neurons - Herculano-Houzel, S. (2012). The remarkable, yet not extraordinary, human brain as a scaled-up primate brain and its associated cost. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (Supplement_1), 10661–10668. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1201895109

  7. 10,000 Connections - Eagleman, D. (2011). Incognito: The secret lives of brains. Pantheon Books (p. 1-2).

  8. MICrONs Consortium et al. Functional connectomics spanning multiple areas of mouse visual cortex. [Preprint]. Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.07.28.454025


Chapter 5: Intro to ASCs

  1. Glickstein, M. (1988). The Discovery of the Visual Cortex. Scientific American, 259(3), 118–127.

  2. Sandrone, S., & Riva, M. (2014). Bartolomeo Panizza (1785–1867). Journal of Neurology, 261(6), 1249–1250. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-013-7028-6

  3. Danziger, S., Levav, J., & Avnaim-Pesso, L. (2011). Extraneous factors in judicial decisions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(17), 6889–6892. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1018033108

  4. Eagleman, D. (2020). Livewired: The inside story of the ever-changing brain. Pantheon Books. (p. 3-14) But really, this entire book is centered around the idea that the brain is more “livewired” rather than being hardwired, championing the idea that the brain is a living, dynamic, and adaptable system that shapes itself according to the environment.

  5. Wheal, J., & Kotler, S. (2017). Stealing Fire: How silicon valley, the navy SEALs and maverick scientists are revolutionizing the way we live and work. Dey Street Books. (p. 27). As the book’s subtitle suggests, professionals, Navy SEALs, and top-performers in every field are figuring out that NOSC, like flow states, are the key to accessing peak-levels of performance and staying there. One such example includes Navy SEALs who’ve combined sensory deprivation tanks with language-training subsequently allowing them to cut down the time it takes to learn a new language from six months down to six weeks.

  6. InformedHealth.org [Internet]. (2016). How does our sense of taste work? (2006th ed.). Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279408/

  7. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Military Nutrition Research. (2001). Caffeine for the Sustainment of Mental Task Performance: Formulations for Military Operations. National Academies Press (US). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK223808/

  8. Chaudhry, S. R., & Gossman, W. (2021). Biochemistry, Endorphin. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470306/

  9. Fuss, J., Steinle, J., Bindila, L., Auer, M. K., Kirchherr, H., Lutz, B., & Gass, P. (2015). A runner’s high depends on cannabinoid receptors in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(42), 13105–13108. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1514996112

  10. Dawkins, R. (2016). Climbing mount improbable. W W Norton. (p. 12-14).

  11. Vartanian, L. R. (2012). Self-Discrepancy Theory and Body Image. In Encyclopedia of Body Image and Human Appearance (pp. 711–717). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-384925-0.00112-7. For a demonstration of what focal length can do to someone’s face, see: https://www.businessinsider.com/cameras-can-make-you-look-fat-2016-7


Chapter 6: Three Cases of Brain Trauma

  1. Taylor, J. B. (2016). My stroke of insight: A brain scientist’s personal journey. Plume. (p. 147).

  2. McGilchrist, I. (2019). The master and his emissary: The divided brain and the making of the Western world (New expanded edition). Yale University Press. (p. 12).

  3. Taylor, J. (2008, February). My stroke of insight [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/jill_bolte_taylor_my_stroke_of_insight (10:23 into her talk).

  4. Taylor, J. B. (2016). My stroke of insight: A brain scientist’s personal journey. Plume. Located in Appendix A of her book, this short list helps provide friends, family, and specialists with a better understanding about what a stroke survivor might be going through. See also: “Forty Things I Needed Most” in Appendix B.

  5. Taylor, J. (2008, February). My stroke of insight [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/jill_bolte_taylor_my_stroke_of_insight (15:13 into her talk).

  6. Harlow, J. M. (1848). Passage of an Iron Rod through the Head. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, XXXIX(20), (p. 389–393).

  7. Harlow, J. M. (1868). “Recovery from the passage of an iron bar through the head.” Publications of the Massachusetts Medical Society 2: 327-47. (Republished in Macmillan, An Odd Kind of Fame.)

  8. Jane Treays. (2005). The Man With The Seven Second Memory (Amnesia Documentary) [Documentary]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k_P7Y0-wgos

  9. Maguire, E. A., Gadian, D. G., Johnsrude, I. S., Good, C. D., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R. S., & Frith, C. D. (2000). Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(8), 4398–4403. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.070039597

  10. Jane Treays. (2005). The Man With The Seven Second Memory (Amnesia Documentary) [Documentary]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k_P7Y0-wgos (To see footage of his diaries, skip to 18 min in).

  11. John Dollar. (1986, August 4). Prisoner of Consciousness [Documentary]. In Equinox. Channel Four. https://youtu.be/aqiw2nx6gjY (For moments when Clive is playing music, skip to 6 minutes in, 34 minutes in, and 37 minutes in). At 38 min in, when Clive’s being shown a tape of himself performing, you can really catch sight the compartmentalized nature of consciousness we’re referring to.

  12. Moreira-Gonzalez, A., Papay, F. E., & Zins, J. E. (2006). Calvarial Thickness and Its Relation to Cranial Bone Harvest: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 117(6), 1964–1971. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000209933.78532.a7

  13. Kitamura, T., Ogawa, S. K., Roy, D. S., Okuyama, T., Morrissey, M. D., Smith, L. M., Redondo, R. L., & Tonegawa, S. (2017). Engrams and circuits crucial for systems consolidation of a memory. Science, 356(6333), 73–78. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aam6808

  14. Taylor, J. B. (2016). My stroke of insight: A brain scientist’s personal journey. Plume. (p. 50-51).

  15. Morrow-Odom, K. L., & Swann, A. B. (2013). Effectiveness of melodic intonation therapy in a case of aphasia following right hemisphere stroke. Aphasiology, 27(11), 1322–1338. https://doi.org/10.1080/02687038.2013.817522


Chapter 7: Sensory Awareness

  1. For a measurement on the amount of bits streaming in through all our five senses (11 million bits) see: Wiliam, D. (2006). The half‐second delay: What follows? Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 14(1), 71–81. https://doi.org/10.1080/14681360500487470, and Zimmermann, M. (1989). The Nervous System in the Context of Information Theory. In R. F. Schmidt & G. Thews (Eds.), Human Physiology (p. 166–173). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-73831-9_7. Both sources reference the idea of 11 million bits, however the clarification comes in regards to the amount our conscious selves can attend to. The man who’s done the most pioneering work on flow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, has estimated that the conscious self can only attend to about 120 bits in: Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology. Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9088-8 (p. xvi). On the contrary, Bell Labs engineer Robert Lucky has estimated 50 bits per second for the conscious, and billions for the unconscious in: Lucky, R. (1989). Silicon dreams: Information, man, and machine. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press. (p. 29). In any case, the common denominator worth focusing on here is the ratio of conscious attention to unconscious attention, because on that point, everyone does seem to agree: It is the conscious self that fails to compare. As new data continues to come in, these values are likely to change, but until that time, we have settled upon an estimate of 200 bits for the conscious self, and 11 million bits for the unconscious self.

  2. Eagleman, D. (2020). Livewired: The inside story of the ever-changing brain. Pantheon Books (p. 168-69). See also: Eagleman, D. (2011). Incognito: The secret lives of brains. Pantheon Books (p. 26-27; 48-50). At least as far back as 1956, Donald MacKay was proposing that the whole purpose of the visual cortex was to generate a model of the exterior world.

  3. The three-dimensional representation of reality that we perceive in our minds is actually more like a 2½-D sketch, rather than an actual 3-D model. Remember, the only reason we perceive objects as being “a certain distance away” is because we have two different retinal images to compare against one another. For more on the 2½-D Sketch idea, see: Stevens, K. A. (2012). The Vision of David Marr. Perception, 41(9), 1061–1072. https://doi.org/10.1068/p7297

  4. Eagleman, D. (2011). Incognito: The secret lives of brains. Pantheon Books (p. 26-7; 35).

  5. Li, S., Xu, Y., Cong, W., Ma, S., Zhu, M., & Qi, M. (2018). Biologically Inspired Hierarchical Contour Detection with Surround Modulation and Neural Connection. Sensors, 18(8), 2559. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082559

  6. Cant, J. S., Large, M.-E., McCall, L., & Goodale, M. A. (2008). Independent Processing of Form, Colour, and Texture in Object Perception. Perception, 37(1), 57–78. https://doi.org/10.1068/p5727

  7. Most interesting is the movement vision impairment case reported on in: Zihl, J., Von Cramon, D., & Mai, N. (1983). Selective disturbance of movement vision after bilateral brain damage. Brain, 106(2), 313–340. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/106.2.313 and Zihl, J., Von Cramon, D., Mai, N., & Schmid, Ch. (1991). Disturbance of movement vision after bilateral posterior brain damage: Further evidence and follow up observations. Brain, 114(5), 2235–2252. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/114.5.2235

  8. O’Reilly and Munakata. (2020, August 13). 6.3: Oriented Edge Detectors in Primary Visual Cortex. Medicine LibreTexts. https://med.libretexts.org/@go/page/12598

  9. Winerman, L. (2012, December). Neuroscientist brings light to the blind—And to vision research. American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/monitor/2012/12/neuroscientist-sinha

  10. Daw, N. W., Fox, K., Sato, H., & Czepita, D. (1992). Critical period for monocular deprivation in the cat visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 67(1), 197–202. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.1992.67.1.197

  11. Wiesel, T. N., & Hubel, D. H. (1965). Extent of recovery from the effects of visual deprivation in kittens. Journal of Neurophysiology, 28(6), 1060–1072. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.1965.28.6.1060

  12. Sinha, P. (2009, November). How brains learn to see [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/pawan_sinha_how_brains_learn_to_see (9:35 into the video).

  13. Gandhi, T. K., Singh, A. K., Swami, P., Ganesh, S., & Sinha, P. (2017). Emergence of categorical face perception after extended early-onset blindness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(23), 6139–6143. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1616050114

  14. Ostrovsky, Y. (2010). Learning to see: The early stages of perceptual organization. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Brain and Cognitive Sciences]. http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/62087 (p. 14).

  15. Ganesh, S., Arora, P., Sethi, S., Gandhi, T. K., Kalia, A., Chatterjee, G., & Sinha, P. (2014). Results of late surgical intervention in children with early-onset bilateral cataracts. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 98(10), 1424–1428. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-304475

  16. Chatterjee, R. (2015). Out of the darkness. Science, 350(6259), 372–375. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.350.6259.372

  17. Sinha, P., Balas, B. J., Ostrovsky, Y., & Wulff, J. (2009). Visual object discovery. In Object Categorization: Computer and Human Vision Perspectives. Cambridge University Press (p. 301-19). See also: Sinha, P. (2009, November). How brains learn to see [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/pawan_sinha_how_brains_learn_to_see (9:50 in).

  18. Ostrovsky, Y., Andalman, A., & Sinha, P. (2006). Vision Following Extended Congenital Blindness. Psychological Science, 17(12), 1009–1014. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01827.x

  19. Like quantifying unconscious processing capabilities, comparing the human eye to pixels can be a bit problematic. For more about this subject, you could read: Jeff Johnson, Kate Finn, Chapter 3 - Vision, Editor(s): Jeff Johnson, Kate Finn, Designing User Interfaces for an Aging Population, Morgan Kaufmann, 2017, (p. 27-53). Because there, the general point is made, “It’s just how human eyes are: we have high-resolution vision only in a small area in the very center of each eye’s visual field—an area called the “fovea” that is about 1% of the total visual field (see box Human Vision Is Mostly Low Resolution). Most of our visual field—the other 99%—has very low resolution: it sees the world as if through frosted glass [Eagleman, 2011].”

  20. Stewart, E. E. M., Valsecchi, M., & Schütz, A. C. (2020). A review of interactions between peripheral and foveal vision. Journal of Vision, 20(12), 2. https://doi.org/10.1167/jov.20.12.2

  21. Rehman, I., Mahabadi, N., Motlagh, M., & Ali, T. (2021). Anatomy, Head and Neck, Eye Fovea. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482301/

  22. Eagleman, D. (2011). Incognito: The secret lives of brains. Pantheon Books (p. 31-33).

  23. Jeff Johnson, Chapter 5 - Our Peripheral Vision is Poor, Editor(s): Jeff Johnson, Designing with the Mind in Mind (Second Edition), Morgan Kaufmann, 2014, (p. 109-16).

  24. Elizabeth Thomson. (1996, December 19). MIT Research—Brain Processing of Visual Information. MIT News. https://news.mit.edu/1996/visualprocessing

  25. Jeff Johnson, Chapter 5 - Our Peripheral Vision is Poor, Editor(s): Jeff Johnson, Designing with the Mind in Mind (Second Edition), Morgan Kaufmann, 2014, (p. 109-16).

  26. Schmid, S., Wilson, D. A., & Rankin, C. H. (2015). Habituation mechanisms and their importance for cognitive function. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2014.00097

  27. See item one from this list.

  28. Rankin, C. H., Abrams, T., Barry, R. J., Bhatnagar, S., Clayton, D. F., Colombo, J., Coppola, G., Geyer, M. A., Glanzman, D. L., Marsland, S., McSweeney, F. K., Wilson, D. A., Wu, C.-F., & Thompson, R. F. (2009). Habituation revisited: An updated and revised description of the behavioral characteristics of habituation. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 92(2), 135–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2008.09.012

  29. First, “During the process of meditation, accumulated stresses are removed, energy is increased, and health is positively affected overall.[7] Research has confirmed a myriad of health benefits associated with the practice of meditation. These include stress reduction,[1,2,17,18,19,20] decreased anxiety,[1,17,19,21,22] decreased depression,[1,17,18,23,24] reduction in pain (both physical and psychological),[2,25,26] improved memory,[2,27] and increased efficiency.[12,28,29,30]” And also from the same article: “Meditation increases regional cerebral blood flow in the frontal and anterior cingulate regions of the brain,[46,47,48,49,50] increases efficiency in the brain’s executive attentional network,[12,28,29,30] and increases electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence.[13,14] A study on the effect of meditation on the executive attentional network found that meditators were faster on all tasks.[12] With aging, the brain cortical thickness (grey matter, which contains neurons) decreases, whereas meditation experience is associated with an increase in grey matter in the brain.[11,26,51,52]. These are direct quotes from: Sharma, H. (2015). Meditation: Process and effects. AYU (An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda), 36(3), 233. https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-8520.182756

  30. “Brain regions associated with attention, interoception and sensory processing were thicker in meditation participants than matched controls…” Lazar, S. W., Kerr, C. E., Wasserman, R. H., Gray, J. R., Greve, D. N., Treadway, M. T., McGarvey, M., Quinn, B. T., Dusek, J. A., Benson, H., Rauch, S. L., Moore, C. I., & Fischl, B. (2005). Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport, 16(17), 1893–1897. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.wnr.0000186598.66243.19

  31. “Mindfulness meditation increased thickness in the prefrontal cortex and parietal lobes, both linked to attention control…” Valk, S. L., Bernhardt, B. C., Trautwein, F.-M., Böckler, A., Kanske, P., Guizard, N., Collins, D. L., & Singer, T. (2017). Structural plasticity of the social brain: Differential change after socio-affective and cognitive mental training. Science Advances, 3(10), e1700489. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1700489

  32. McAlonan, K. (2006). Attentional Modulation of Thalamic Reticular Neurons. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(16), 4444–4450. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5602-05.2006

  33. BBC Two (Producers), & Austin, Naomi (Director). (2010). Is Seeing Believing? [Video File]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/2k8fHR9jKVM

  34. Dr. Iain McGilchrist. (2010, November 22). The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World [RSA Lecture]. https://youtu.be/SbUHxC4wiWk (12:50 in).

  35. David Eagleman. (2017, May 31). David Eagleman: A Brainy Approach to Innovation [Video]. https://youtu.be/9N00kDGMB5w (10 min in).

  36. Zimmermann, M. (1989). The Nervous System in the Context of Information Theory. In R. F. Schmidt & G. Thews (Eds.), Human Physiology (p. 166–173). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-73831-9_7

  37. Frith, C. D. (2007). Making up the mind: How the brain creates our mental world. Wiley Publishing. (p. 111).


Chapter 8: Sensory Input = Consciousness Output*

  1. AMNH. (2018, January 12). To Hunt, the Platypus Uses Its Electric Sixth Sense [Museum Website]. News & Blogs. https://www.amnh.org/explore/news-blogs/news-posts/to-hunt-the-platypus-uses-its-electric-sixth-sense

  2. Merabet, L. B., Swisher, J. D., McMains, S. A., Halko, M. A., Amedi, A., Pascual-Leone, A., & Somers, D. C. (2007). Combined Activation and Deactivation of Visual Cortex During Tactile Sensory Processing. Journal of Neurophysiology, 97(2), 1633–1641. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00806.2006

  3. Merabet, L. B., Hamilton, R., Schlaug, G., Swisher, J. D., Kiriakopoulos, E. T., Pitskel, N. B., Kauffman, T., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2008). Rapid and Reversible Recruitment of Early Visual Cortex for Touch. PLoS ONE, 3(8), e3046. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0003046

  4. San Diego Zoo. (2021, April 13). Polar Bear Ursus maritimus [San Diego Zoo Website]. Animals. https://animals.sandiegozoo.org/animals/polar-bear

  5. Dalton, Phillip. (2014). Nature: Snow Bears [DVD]. BBC Earth. https://www.pbs.org/video/snow-bears-trpvsn/

  6. Haldane, J. (2017). Possible Worlds. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. (p. 260-8)

  7. Dawkins, R. (2005, July). Why the universe seems so strange [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/richard_dawkins_why_the_universe_seems_so_strange/ (12:10)

  8. Ibid. (12:20).

  9. Sam Harris, Jordan Peterson & Douglas Murray in Dublin—Part 3—Presented by Pangburn. (2008, July 14). [Video File]. Pangburn Philosophy. https://youtu.be/PqpYxD71hJU (70:30).

  10. Dr. David Eagleman. (2012). The Umwelt [Author’s Website]. Latest. Retrieved April 18, 2021, from: https://eagleman.com/latest/umwelt/

  11. San Diego Zoo. (2021, April 13). Polar Bear Ursus maritimus [San Diego Zoo Website]. Animals. https://animals.sandiegozoo.org/animals/polar-bear

  12. Brinkløv, S., Fenton, M. B., & Ratcliffe, J. M. (2013). Echolocation in Oilbirds and swiftlets. Frontiers in Physiology, 4. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2013.00123

  13. Fang, J. (2010). Snake infrared detection unravelled. Nature, news.2010.122. https://doi.org/10.1038/news.2010.122

  14. Dr. David Eagleman. (2012). The Umwelt [Author’s Website]. Latest. Retrieved April 18, 2021, from: https://eagleman.com/latest/umwelt/

  15. Eagleman, D. (2015, March). Can we create new senses for humans? [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/david_eagleman_can_we_create_new_senses_for_humans

  16. Ibid. (17:20 in).

  17. McGilchrist, I. (2019). The master and his emissary: The divided brain and the making of the Western world (New expanded edition). Yale University Press. (p. 28).


Chapter 9: What is Reality?

  1. King, B., & Long, J. (2018, February 12). The shocking facts revealed: How sharks and other animals evolved electroreception to find their prey [Independent News Organization]. The Conversation. http://theconversation.com/the-shocking-facts-revealed-how-sharks-and-other-animals-evolved-electroreception-to-find-their-prey-91066

  2. Fang, J. (2010). Snake infrared detection unravelled. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/news.2010.122

  3. Davis, A. (2015, March). New video technology that reveals an object’s hidden properties [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/abe_davis_new_video_technology_that_reveals_an_object_s_hidden_properties

  4. Wang, P., Liang, J., & Wang, L. V. (2020). Single-shot ultrafast imaging attaining 70 trillion frames per second. Nature Communications, 11(1), 2091. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15745-4

  5. Baluch, P., & Gonzales, A. (2015, July 1). How Do We See? [ASU School of Life Sciences]. ASU - Ask A Biologist. https://askabiologist.asu.edu/explore/how-do-we-see

  6. The three-dimensional representation of reality that we perceive in our minds is actually more like a 2½-D sketch, rather than an actual 3D model. Remember, the only reason we perceive objects as being “a certain distance away” is because we have two different retinal images to compare against one another. For more on the 2½-D Sketch idea, see: Stevens, K. A. (2012). The Vision of David Marr. Perception, 41(9), 1061–1072. https://doi.org/10.1068/p7297

  7. Ramachandran, V. S., & Rogers-Ramachandran, D. (2009). Seeing in Stereo. Scientific American Mind, 20(4), 20–22. https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamericanmind0709-20

  8. Gots, Jason. (2017, November). David Eagleman (neuroscientist)—Your Creative Brain. Retrieved December 01, 2017, from https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/think-again-a-big-think-podcast/id1002073669?i=1000394117931 (26:45 in).

  9. New York University. (2011, January 12). How human vision perceives rapid changes: Brain predicts consequences of eye movements based on what we see next [Science Magazine]. ScienceDaily. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110110103737.htm


Chapter 10: Emotional Coding

  1. Takes statistics - Turns out our brain’s take statistics and draw conclusions from the data in the same way a statistician might pull patterns out of noisy data. The authors of this paper suggest, “that the feeling of confidence originates from a mental computation of statistical confidence.” Sanders, J. I., Hangya, B., & Kepecs, A. (2016). Signatures of a Statistical Computation in the Human Sense of Confidence. Neuron, 90(3), 499–506. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2016.03.025

  2. Association learning & the Garcia effect - Jeremy Wolfe. (2004, Fall). Learning: The Power of Association [9.00 Introduction to Psychology]. MIT OpenCourseWare, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/brain-and-cognitive-sciences/9-00-introduction-to-psychology-fall-2004/lecture-notes/3-learning-the-power-of-association/

  3. Makes associations/finds connections - The author of this paper argues that superior pattern processing is “the fundamental basis of most, if not all, unique features of the human brain including intelligence, language, imagination, invention, and the belief in imaginary entities such as ghosts and gods.” Mattson, M. P. (2014). Superior pattern processing is the essence of the evolved human brain. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2014.00265

  4. A more refined version of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is available here: Kenrick, D. T., Griskevicius, V., Neuberg, S. L., & Schaller, M. (2010). Renovating the Pyramid of Needs: Contemporary Extensions Built Upon Ancient Foundations. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), 292–314. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691610369469


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